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Sunday, March 4, 2012

How To Install Google Analytics Code On Your Blogger Blog

How To Install Google Analytics Code On Your Blogger Blog

This video will walk you through the process of creating your Google Analytics code and installing it in your Blogger blog so you can start tracking your visitors. 

This video walks you through the steps of adding the code that Google Analytics creates to your Blogger Blog. In order to do this, you must open a free G-Mail account, a free Google Analytics account, and have a free Blogger blog. Once you have theses three items, you can start to track the visitors to your blog. Of course, you can also create web profiles in Google Analytics to track other sites as well.
***NOTE*** If you are using Internet Explorer 8, you may have problems viewing the video. If so, please use FireFox or click on this link to access the video directly in Internet Explorer 8:

Fluorescent Text Effects that Glow Using Illustrator

Fluorescent Text Effects that Glow Using Illustrator

This tutorial is on how to create a glowing text effect in Adobe Illustrator. This effect is great to apply inflyer printing and even when designing for business card printing. While you can rely on your desktop publishing application for better fonts and text styles, there is nothing like using Adobe Illustrator to fully realize that fluorescent text effect. So why not go all the way with your titles by creating them in illustrator right?

In this special guide, we will go through the step by step process of creating text effects that make your title look like a fluorescent type light or energy. This will be great applied to your poster titles, booklet covers, catalog headlines and of course your web design headers. So carefully read through these steps to learn.

1. First, let us create a nice dark background where our fluorescent text effects will inhabit. With a new document open, use the Rectangle tool and just create a large black rectangle shape.

2. Next, consider adding a gradient colour to our background to add a slight dynamic look into it. For our purposes we are using a Black-DarkGrey-Black combination. The gradient type is linear and the angle is 90 degrees.

3. Now type in your text. Choose the font that you want to use for your glowing text of course, and for now use a fairly light colour. Enlarge the size to 60-72pt when necessary.

4. Now, to be able to apply effects to this title, go to Object -> Expand… from the menu bar. Press ok to select the default options.

5. Then, set the Path’s Colour to none, and the stroke should be your own custom colour that is about 2pt in thickness.

6. For our example, we are going to use the colour Yellow.

7. Next, duplicate this title by pressing CTLR+C and CTRL+V while the title is selected. Increase the stroke of this duplicate to 4pt, and reduce its opacity to 50%.

8. Re-align the text titles to get an effect like this:

9. Now, duplicate the original 2pt title again. This time select Effect -> Blur -> Gaussian Blur. Use a 3 pixel radius to get this kind of blurred effect.

10. Then, just place it back onto our text to achieve that glow effect.

11. Finally, to add more subtle glint or shine effects, we will use the ellipse tool. Simply create a long thin ellipse near the key text places where you want glints to appear.

12. Apply a Blur to it by selecting Effect -> Blur -> Gaussian Blur. Then just duplicate this all over your text to add random glints and glows.

13. Once you look at it from a normal size, you will see the glow effect shine.

14. Finally, just apply the same techniques on other line art to achieve your glow titles and lines.

HTML Links

Links are found in nearly all Web pages. Links allow users to click their way from page to page.


Try it Yourself - Examples

HTML links
How to create links in an HTML document.
(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)

HTML Hyperlinks (Links)

A hyperlink (or link) is a word, group of words, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document.
When you move the cursor over a link in a Web page, the arrow will turn into a little hand.
Links are specified in HTML using the <a> tag.
The <a> tag can be used in two ways:
  1. To create a link to another document, by using the href attribute
  2. To create a bookmark inside a document, by using the name attribute

HTML Link Syntax

The HTML code for a link is simple. It looks like this:
<a href="url">Link text</a>
The href attribute specifies the destination of a link.


<a href="">Visit W3Schools</a>
which will display like this: Visit W3Schools
Clicking on this hyperlink will send the user to W3Schools' homepage.
Tip: The "Link text" doesn't have to be text. It can be an image or any other HTML element.

HTML Links - The target Attribute

The target attribute specifies where to open the linked document.
The example below will open the linked document in a new browser window or a new tab:


<a href="" target="_blank">Visit W3Schools!</a>

HTML Links - The name Attribute

The name attribute specifies the name of an anchor.
The name attribute is used to create a bookmark inside an HTML document.
Note: The upcoming HTML5 standard suggests using the id attribute instead of the name attribute for specifying the name of an anchor. Using the id attribute actually works also for HTML4 in all modern browsers.
Bookmarks are not displayed in any special way. They are invisible to the reader.


A named anchor inside an HTML document:
<a name="tips">Useful Tips Section</a>
Create a link to the "Useful Tips Section" inside the same document:
<a href="#tips">Visit the Useful Tips Section</a>
Or, create a link to the "Useful Tips Section" from another page:
<a href="">
Visit the Useful Tips Section</a>

Basic Notes - Useful Tips

Note: Always add a trailing slash to subfolder references. If you link like this: href="", you will generate two requests to the server, the server will first add a slash to the address, and then create a new request like this: href="".
Tip: Named anchors are often used to create "table of contents" at the beginning of a large document. Each chapter within the document is given a named anchor, and links to each of these anchors are put at the top of the document.


More Examples

An image as a link
How to use an image as a link.
Link to a location on the same page
How to link to a bookmark.
Break out of a frame
How to break out of a frame (if your site is locked in a frame).
Create a mailto link
How to link to a mail message (will only work if you have mail installed).
Create a mailto link 2
Another mailto link.



8.1 What Is A Pointer?

Simply stated, a pointer is an address. Instead of being a variable, it is a pointer to a variable
stored somewhere in the address space of the program. It is always best to use an example so
load the file named pointer.c and display it on your monitor for an example of a program
with some pointers in it.

main( ) /*  illustratrion of pointer use */
int index,*pt1,*pt2;
index = 39; /*  any numerical value */
pt1 = &index; /* the address of index  */
pt2 = pt1;
printf("The value is %d %d %d\n",index,*pt1,*pt2);
*pt1 = 13; /* this changes the value of index */
printf("The value is %d %d %d\n",index,*pt1,*pt2);

For the moment, ignore the declaration statement where we define "index" and two other fields
beginning with a star. It is properly called an asterisk, but for reasons we will see later, let’s
agree to call it a star. If you observe the first statement, it should be clear that we assign the
value of 39 to the variable "index". This is no surprise, we have been doing it for several
programs now. The next statement however, says to assign to "pt1" a strange looking value,
namely the variable "index" with an ampersand in front of it. In this example, pt1 and pt2 are
pointers, and the variable "index" is a simple variable. Now we have problem. We need to
learn how to use pointers in a program, but to do so requires that first we define the means of
using the pointers in the program.

The following two rules will be somewhat confusing to you at first but we need to state the
definitions before we can use them. Take your time, and the whole thing will clear up very

8.2 Two Very Important Rules

The following two rules are very important when using pointers and must be thoroughly

1. A variable name with an ampersand in front of it defines the address of the variable and
therefore points to the variable. You can therefore read line six as "pt1 is assigned the value of
the address of "index".

2. A pointer with a "star" in front of it refers to the value of the variable pointed to by the pointer.
Line nine of the program can be read as "The stored (starred) value to which the pointer "pt1"
points is assigned the value 13". Now you can see why it is convenient to think of the asterisk
as a star, it sort of sounds like the word store.

8.3 Memory Aids

1. Think of & as an address.
2. Think of * as a star referring to stored.

Assume for the moment that "pt1" and "pt2" are pointers (we will see how to define them shortly).
As pointers, they do not contain a variable value but an address of a variable and can be used
to point to a variable. Line six of the program assigns the pointer "pt1" to point to the variable
we have already defined as "index" to "pt1". Since we have a pointer to "index", we can
manipulate the value of "index" by using either the variable name itself, or the pointer.

Line nine modifies the value by using the pointer. Since the pointer "pt1" points to the variable
"index", then putting a star in front of the pointer name refers to the memory location to which
it is pointing. Line nine therefore assigns to "index" the value of 13. Anyplace in the program
where it is permissible to use the variable name "index", it is also permissible to use the name
"*pt1" since they are identical in meaning until the pointer is reassigned to some other variable.

8.4 Another Pointer

Just to add a little intrigue to the system, we have another pointer defined in this program, "pt2".
Since "pt2" has not been assigned a value prior to statement seven, it doesn’t point to anything,
it contains garbage. Of course, that is also true of any variable until a value is assigned to it.

Statement seven assigns "pt2" the same address as "pt1", so that now "pt2" also points to the
variable "index". So to continue the definition from the last paragraph, anyplace in the program
where it is permissible to use the variable "index", it is also permissible to use the name "*pt2"
because they are identical in meaning. This fact is illustrated in the first "printf" statement since
this statement uses the three means of identifying the same variable to print out the same variable
three times.

8.5 There Is Only One Variable

Note carefully that, even though it appears that there are three variables, there is really only one
variable. The two pointers point to the single variable. This is illustrated in the next statement
which assigns the value of 13 to the variable "index", because that is where the pointer "pt1" is
pointing. The next "printf" statement causes the new value of 13 to be printed out three times.
Keep in mind that there is really only one variable to be changed, not three.

This is admittedly a very difficult concept, but since it is used extensively in all but the most
trivial C programs, it is well worth your time to stay with this material until you understand it

8.6 How Do You Declare A Pointer?

Now to keep a promise and tell you how to declare a pointer. Refer to the third line of the
program and you will see our old familiar way of defining the variable "index", followed by
two more definitions. The second definition can be read as "the storage location to which "pt1"
points will be an int type variable". Therefore, "pt1" is a pointer to an int type variable. Likewise,
"pt2" is another pointer to an int type variable.

A pointer must be defined to point to some type of variable. Following a proper definition, it
cannot be used to point to any other type of variable or it will result in a "type incompatibility"
error. In the same manner that a "float" type of variable cannot be added to an "int" type variable,
a pointer to a "float" variable cannot be used to point to an integer variable.

Compile and run this program and observe that there is only one variable and the single statement
in line 9 changes the one variable which is displayed three times.

8.7 The Second Program With Pointers

In these few pages so far on pointers, we have covered a lot of territory, but it is important
territory. We still have a lot of material to cover so stay in tune as we continue this important
aspect of C. Load the next file named pointer2.c and display it on your monitor so we can
continue our study.

main( )
char strg[40],*there,one,two;
int *pt,list[100],index;
strcpy(strg,"This is a character string.");
one = strg[0]; /* one and two are identical */
two = *strg;
printf("The first output is %c %c\n",one,two);
one = strg[8]; /* one and two are identical */
two = *(strg+8);
printf("The second output is %c %c %c\n",one,two);
there = strg+10; /* strg+10 is identical to strg[10]  */
printf("The third output is %c\n",strg[10]);
printf("The fourth output is %c\n",*there);
for (index = 0;index < 100;index++)
list[index] = index + 100;
pt = list + 27;
printf("The fifth output is %d\n",list[27]);
printf("The sixth output is %d\n",*pt);

In this program we have defined several variables and two pointers. The first pointer named
"there" is a pointer to a "char" type variable and the second named "pt" points to an "int" type
variable. Notice also that we have defined two array variable named "strg" and "list". We will
use them to show the correspondence between pointers and array names.

8.8 A String Variable Is Actually A Pointer

In the programming language C, a string variable is defined to be simply a pointer to the beginning
of a string. This will take some explaining. Refer to the example program on your monitor.

You will notice that first we assign a string constant to the string variable named "strg" so we
will have some data to work with. Next, we assign the value of the first element to the variable
"one", a simple "char" variable. Next, since the string name is a pointer by definition of the C
language, we can assign the same value to "two" by using the star and the string name. The
result if the two assignments are such that "one" now has the same value as "two", and both
contain the character "T", the first character in the string. Note that it would be incorrect to
write the ninth line as "two = *strg[0];" because the star takes the place of the square brackets.

For all practical purposes, "strg" is a pointer. It does, however, have one restriction that a true
pointer does not have. It cannot be changed like a variable, but must always contain the initial
value and therefore always points to its string. It could be thought of as a pointer constant, and
in some applications you may desire a pointer that cannot be corrupted in any way. Even though
it cannot be changed, it can be used to refer to other values than the one it is defined to point to,
as we will see in the next section of the program.

Moving ahead to line 12, the variable "one" is assigned the value of the ninth variable (since
the indexing starts at zero) and "two" is assigned the same value because we are allowed to
index a pointer to get to values farther ahead in the string. Both variables now contain the
character "a".

The C programming language takes care of indexing for us automatically by adjusting the
indexing for the type of variable the pointer is pointing to. In this case, the index of 8 is simply
added to the pointer value variable before looking up the desired result because a "char" type
variable is one byte long. If we were using a pointer to an "int" type variable, the index would
be doubled and added to the pointer before looking up the value because an "int" type variable
uses two bytes per value stored. When we get to the chapter on structures, we will see that a
variable can have many, even into the hundreds or thousands, of characters per variable, but the
indexing will be handled automatically for us by the system.

Since "there" is already a pointer, it can be assigned the value of the eleventh element of "strg"
by the statement in line 16 of the program. Remember that since "there" is a true pointer, it can
be assigned any value as long as that value represents a "char" type of address. It should be
clear that the pointers must be "typed" in order to allow the pointer arithmetic described in the
last paragraph to be done properly. The third and fourth outputs will be the same, namely the
letter "c".

8.9 Pointer Arithmetic

Not all forms of arithmetic are permissible on a pointer. Only those things that make sense,
considering that a pointer is an address somewhere in the computer. It would make sense to
add a constant to an address, thereby moving it ahead in memory that number of places. Likewise,
subtraction is permissible, moving it back some number of locations. Adding two pointers
together would not make sense because absolute memory addresses are not additive. Pointer
multiplication is also not allowed, as this would be a funny number. If you think about what
you are actually doing, it will make sense to you what is allowed, and what is not.

8.10 Now For An Integer Pointer

The array named "list" is assigned a series of values from 100 to 199 in order to have some data
to work with. Next we assign the pointer "pt" the value of the 28th element of the list and print
out the same value both ways to illustrate that the system truly will adjust the index for the "int"
type variable. You should spend some time in this program until you feel you fairly well
understand these lessons on pointers.

Compile and run pointer2.c and study the output.

8.11 Function Data Return With A Pointer

You may recall that back in the lesson on functions we mentioned that there were two ways to
get variable data back from a function. One way is through use of the array, and you should be
right on the verge of guessing the other way. If your guess is through use of a pointer, you are
correct. Load and display the program named twoway.c for an example of this.

main( )
int pecans,apples;
pecans = 100;
apples = 101;
printf("The starting values are %d %d\n",pecans,apples);
/* when we call "fixup"   */
fixup(pecans,&apples); /* we take the value of pecans   */
/* we take the address of apples */
printf("The ending values are %d %d\n",pecans,apples);
fixup(nuts,fruit) /* nuts is an integer value */
int nuts,*fruit; /* fruit points to an integer */
printf("The value are %d %d\n",nuts,*fruit);
nuts = 135;
*fruit = 172;
printf("The values are %d %d\n",nuts,*fruit);

In twoway.c, there are two variables defined in the main program "pecans" and "apples".
Notice that neither of these if defined as a pointer. We assign values to both of these and print
them out, then callthe function "fixup" taking with us both of these values. The variable "pecans"
is simply sent to the function, but the address of the variable "apples" is sent to the function.

Now we have a problem. The two arguments are not the same, the second is a pointer to a
variable. We must somehow alert the function to the fact that it is supposed to receive an integer
variable and a pointer to an integer variable. This turns out to be very simple. Notice that the
parameter definitions in the function define "nuts" as an integer, and "fruit" as a pointer to an
integer. The call in the main program therefore is now in agreement with the function heading
and the program interface will work just fine.

In the body of the function, we print the two values sent to the function, then modify them and
print the new values out. This should be perfectly clear to you by now. The surprise occurs
when we return to the main program and print out the two values again. We will find that the
value of pecans will be restored to its value before the function call because the C language
makes a copy of the item in question and takes the copy to the called function, leaving the
original intact. In the case of the variable "apples", we made a copy of a pointer to the variable
and took the copy of the pointer to the function. Since we had a pointer to the original variable,
even though the pointer was a copy, we had access to the original variable and could change it
in the function. When we returned to the main program, we found a changed value in "apples"
when we printed it out.

By using a pointer in a function call, we can have access to the data in the function and change
it in such a way that when we return to the calling program, we have a changed value of data.

It must be pointed out however, that if you modify the value of the pointer itself in the function,
you will have restored pointer when you return because the pointer you use in the function is a
copy of the original. In this example, there was no pointer in the main program because we
simply sent the address to the function, but in many programs you will use pointers in function
calls. One of the places you will find need for pointers in function calls will be when you request
data input using standard input/output routines. These will be covered in the next two chapters.
Compile and run twoway.c and observe the output.

8.12 Pointers Are Valuable

Even though you are probably somewhat intimidated at this point by the use of pointers, you
will find that after you gain experience, you will use them profusely in many ways. You will
also use pointers in every program you write other than the most trivial because they are so
useful. You should probably go over this material carefully several times until you feel comfortable with it because it is very important in the area of input/output which is next on the

8.13 Programming Exercises

1. Define a character array and use "strcpy" to copy a string into it. Print the string out by using
a loop with a pointer to print out one character at a time. Initialize the pointer to the first element
and use the double plus sign to increment the pointer. Use a separate integer variable to count
the characters to print.

2. Modify the program to print out the string backwards by pointing to the end and using a
decrementing pointer.

next lesson

C LANGUAGE TUTORIAL 9. Standard Input/Output

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